CHAPTER 1 CHALLENGES OF NATION BUILDING 7
CHAPTER 2 ERA OF ONE PARTY DOMINANCE 0No items in this section
CHAPTER 3 POLITICS OF PLANNED DEVELOPMENT 0No items in this section
CHAPTER 4 INDIA’S EXTERNAL RELATIONS 0No items in this section
CHAPTER 5 CHALLENGES TO AND RESTORATION OF THE CONGRESS SYSTEM 0No items in this section
CHAPTER 6 THE CRISIS OF DEMOCRATIC ORDER 0No items in this section
CHAPTER 7 THE CRISIS OF DEMOCRATIC ORDER 0No items in this section
CHAPTER 8 THE CRISIS OF DEMOCRATIC ORDER 0No items in this section
CHAPTER 9 RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN INDIAN POLITICS 0No items in this section
REORGANISATION OF STATES
REORGANISATION OF STATES
It was the 3rd Challenge In Nation Building.
Question: Why need to draw the internal boundaries of the Indian states ?
For administrative divisions in such a way that linguistic and cultural plurality should be reflect without affecting the unity of the nation.
- State boundaries were drawn (during Colonial rule) as administrative convenience or territories annexed or ruled by the princely powers. Which had rejected by National movement & promised for linguistic base. INC (After Nagpur session 1920) also recognized this base & created Provincial Congress Committees by linguistic zones who did not follow the administrative divisions of British India.
- Problem in carving out states on the basis of language:
i. Might lead to disruption and disintegration,
ii. Would draw attention away from other social and economic challenges.
iii. Still princely state matter exists.
iv. Memory of Partition was fresh.
- So The central leadership decided to postpone matters.
- This decision challenged by the local leaders and the people with protest named “The Vishalandhra movement”.
i. Area: Began in the Telugu speaking areas of the old Madras province.
ii. Demand: for a separate Andhra for Telugu speaking areas.
iii. Support: Nearly all the political forces in the Andhra.
- Central government was in a situation of vacillation so the movement gathered momentum.
- Death of Potti Sriramulu after 56 days indefinite fast, caused great unrest and resulted in violent outbursts, People came in streets, injured & died in police firing, legislators resigned.
- So Nehru, announced the formation of a separate Andhra state in December 1952.
- Other parts of country also raised their voice for separate state based on language.
- States Reorganisation Commission (SRC): In 1953, For redrawing of the boundaries of states. Accepted linguistic state.
- Based on States Reorganisation Act (SRA-1956), 14 States & 6 UT Created.
- 1960 Bombay- Maharashtra and Gujarat.
- 1963 Assam- Nagaland
- 1966 Punjab- Haryana, Himachal Pradesh
- 1972 Assam- Meghalaya, Manipur and Tripura.
- 1987 Assam- Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh.
- 2014 AP-Telangana
- On the basis of a separate regional culture or complaints of regional imbalance in development.
- 2000 – Chhattisgarh, Uttarakhand and Jharkhand
- Many other regions still facing movements demanding separate and smaller states. Like: Vidarbha (MH), Harit Pradesh (western UP) and the northern region of West Bengal.
Question: Would the demands for separate states will be endanger for unity of the country?
- It was One of the most important concerns in the early years. It was felt that linguistic states may foster separatism and create pressures on the newly founded nation.
- After that the leadership, under popular pressure, finally linguistic states created. Because hoped after accept the regional and linguistic claims of all regions, the threat of division and separatism would be reduced.
- Besides, the accommodation of regional demands and the formation of linguistic states were also seen as more democratic.
Observance Of Linguistic States:
- After 65+ year, the nature of democratic politics and leadership has changed from previous kind of movement.
- The path to politics and power, now open to people other than the small English speaking elite.
- Linguistic reorganisation strengthened national unity not leaded to disintegrate as many had feared earlier.
- Underlined the acceptance of the principle of diversity and democracy.
- Meaning of Democracy: Not only Embracing a democratic constitution, adopting the format of elections. Democracy means recognising and accepting the existence of differences which could at times be oppositional.
- Other words-associated with plurality of ideas and ways of life.
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