Unit 1: The End of Bipolarity 8
The End of Bipolarity Disintegration of Soviet Union, Unipolar World, Middle East Crisis – Afghanistan, Gulf War, Democratic Politics and Democratization – CIS and the 21st Century (Arab Spring).
Unit 2: New Centres of Power 0
Organizations: European Union, ASEAN, SAARC, BRICS. Nations: Russia, China, Israel, India, Japan and South KoreaNo items in this section
Unit 3: Contemporary South Asia 0
Conflicts and efforts for Peace Democratization in South Asia: Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, MaldivesNo items in this section
Unit 4: United Nations and its Organizations 0
Principal Organs, Key Agencies: UNESCO, UNICEF, WHO, ILO, Security Council and the Need for its Expansion.No items in this section
Unit 5: Security in Contemporary World 0
Security: Meaning and Type; Terrorism.No items in this section
Unit 6: Environment and Natural Resources 0
Environmental Movements, Global Warming and Climate Change, Conservation of Natural Resources.No items in this section
Unit 7: Globalization 0
Globalization: Meaning, Manifestation and Debates.No items in this section
LEADERS OF THE SOVIET UNION
LEADERS OF THE SOVIET UNION
- Founder of the Bolshevik Communist party;
- Leader of the Russian Revolution of 1917
- Successor to Lenin after 1924 to 1953
- Rapid industrialisation and forced to collective agriculture;
- Criticised for Terror, authoritarian behaviour and elimination of rivals.
- Successor of Joseph Stalin 1953 to 1964.
- Denounced Stalin’s leadership style.
- Introduced some reforms (peaceful coexistence) in 1956;
- Suppressed- Rebellion in Hungary ; involved in the Cuban missile crisis.
- Successor of Khrushchev in 1964 to 1982.
- Proposed Collective Security system for Asia;
- Invade Afghanistan.
Mikhail Gorbachev (1985-1991):
- Introduced economic and political reform.
- withdrew Soviet troops from Afghanistan and eastern Europe;
- Blamed for the disintegration of the Soviet Union.
- Protests against the Soviet regime in 1991;
- Criticised the Gorbachev.
- First elected President of Russia (1991-99);
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